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Ссуда денег и ссуда капитала

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Деньги, полученные в ссуду функционирующим капиталистом, расходуются в периоды промышленного подъема, как правило, на покупку дополнительных средств производства и рабочей силы, а в периоды экономических кризисов—на погашение ранее выданных долговых обязательств в целях предотвращения банкротства.

В первом случае ссуда обслуживает увеличение действительного капитала, т.е. расширение производства, во - втором — она вызывает лишь движение денег как платежных средств, без всякого роста действительного капитала. Исходя из этого двойственного назначения банковского кредита, можно разграничить ссуду капитала и ссуду денег.

Ссуда капитала — это ссуда, результате использования которой совершается рост действительного капитала. И наоборот ссуда денег — это ссуда, на основе которой происходит только движение денег как платежных средств, не сопровождающееся расширением производства.

Деление банковского кредита на ссуду денег и ссуду капитала важно для понимания роли этого кредита в воспроизводств всего общественного капитала.

Те же понятия употребляются для выяснения влияния той и другой ссуды на воспроизводство индивидуального капитала заемщика. При этом вопрос ставится так: что получает заемщик, прибегающий к банковское кредиту,—дополнительный капитал или только деньги?

Здесь различают две формы банковских ссуд:

Продолжение ниже рекламного блока:

1) ссуды под залог определенных ценностей (векселей, товаров и т.д.)

2) бланковые ссуды, не обеспеченные специальным залогом.

Ясно, когда капиталист получает ссуду в банке, передавая последнее в залог какие-либо ценности, то общая сумма его капитала на увеличивается, происходит лишь превращение части его капитала в денежную форму.

Когда же капиталист берет ссуду в банке, то в результате он получает дополнительный капитал, которым ранее не располагал.

Таким образом, ссудой денег для заемщика служит всякий кредит, обеспеченный реальным залогом, ссудой капитала — кредит не обеспеченный залогом. В свою очередь ссуда капитала может осуществляться путем:

1) долгосрочного кредита, используемого заемщиками для вложения в основной капитал

2) краткосрочного кредита, предназначенного заемщиками для вложения в оборотный капитал.

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